2007-05-27

According to a theorem established by W. Pauli in the late 1920s, there cannot be a

time-operator in quantum theory. It is fairly easy to see why this is so:

Assume that an operator T exists, with [T,H] = iI. Consider then the unitary operator

U = exp(-ibT), with b an arbitrary real number. The one gets [U,H] = -bU, using a

straightforward expansion of the exponent.

Let |Psi> be an eigenstate with energy E, then HU|Psi> = (E+b)U|Psi>, so that U|Psi>

is a state with energy E+b, where b was an arbitrary real number.

In other words, T can only exist if the energy spectrum is continuous and in particular

not bounded below. Pauli concluded that

"the introduction of an operator T must fundamentally be abandoned and that the time

t in quantum mechanics has to be regarded as an ordinary number."

Since then, time in quantum theory is what one reads from a classical clock.

But like all no-go theorems, this argument might have loopholes which one could try to

explore. Perhaps one can make sense of a quantum theory with unbounded energy?

After all, Dirac's electron theory has an unbounded energy spectrum, but with the added

assumption that in the real vacuum all states with E < 0 are already occupied; The famous

'hole theory' which predicted the existence of positrons.

The paper quant-ph/0702111 examines another proposal to work around Pauli's theorem;

Even more about this is discussed in quant-ph/9908033.

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